ETHNIC GENTRIFICATION THE SILENT FIGHT FOR A MACEDONIAN CITY

Robert Rydzewski

Abstract


Since the dissolution of Yugoslavia we can see a significant growth in the importance of ethnic identity in the Balkan states. In effect, since than an irredentist tendency can be seen in the region. The struggle for the creation of a monoethnic country turn into civil wars in the Balkan peninsula in the early 1990s. Macedonia, against a background of ex – republics of Yugoslavia, was relatively stable. However, it does not mean that the ethnicity did not play a great role in independent Macedonia. Ethnicity leaves its mark on politics, society and Macedonian cities. In recent years, the local government of Tetovo-a city in the north-western part of Macedonia-has been trying to impose a new identity. This local policy fits in with the wider national fight for national identity3 and over possession of the city’s public spaces. Simultaneously, we can witness the process of Albanian community emancipation that has influenced social relations. As a result of the changes, the ethnic Macedonians are being pushed out from Tetovo, the second biggest city in the country. In this paper I will argue that what we are witnessing can be called Ethnic Gentrification. I will try to develop the concept of gentrification (Glass 1964) and briefly discuss the legitimacy of broadening well-established concepts.

Keywords


ethnic gentification; ghettoization; ethnicization;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Atkinson, R., Bridge, G. 2005. Gentrification in a Global Context. The new urban

colonialism. London: Routledge.

Azaryahu M. 1996. The power of commemorative street names, Environment and

planning, in: Society and Space, 14, 311 – 330.

Barth F. 1969. Introduction. In: Barth, Frederic Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The

Social Organization of Cultural Difference. London: Allen and Unwin.

Bielenin-Lenczowska K. 2014. From pechalbari to iselenici – migration history of

Macedonians, Association of European Migration Institutions, source: http://aemi.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/macedonian-history-of-migration-1.pdf (insight

08.2014).

Bieber F. 2004. Institutionalizing Ethnicity in the Western Balkans. Managing

Change in Deeply Divided Societies, ECMI Working Paper No. 19.

Bourdieu P. 1991. Language and Symbolic Power, Harvard University Press.

Brown K. 2003. The Past in Question. Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of

Nation, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

Danforth M. L. 1995. The Macedonian conflict. Ethnic nationalism in a transnational

world, New Jersey Princeton University Press.

Dahinden J. 2010. The dynamics of migrants’ transnational formations: between mobility

and locality, in: Bauböck, Rainer und Thomas Faist (eds.), Transnationalism and

Diaspora. Concept, Theories and Methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University

Press, 51-72.

Dahinden J. 2005. Contesting transnationalism? Lessons from the study of Albanian

migration networks from former Yugoslavia, in: Global Networks 5: 2, 191-208.

Dimova R. 2007. From Past Necessity to Contemporary Friction: migration, class and

ethnicity in Macedonia, MPI Working Paper No. 94.

Dutton P. 2005. Outside the metropole: gentrification in provincial cities or provincial

gentrification?, in: R. Atkinson and G. Bridge (eds.), Gentrification in a Global

Context, London: Routledge, 209-224.

Eberhard P. 2005. Przemiany demograficzno-etniczne na obszarze Jugosławii w XX

wieku, Lublin.

Felczak W., Wasilewski T. 1985. Historia Jugosławii, Wrocław, Warszawa, Kraków,

Gdańsk, Łódź, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich.

Geber N. 1997. The muslim population in FYROM (Macedonia): Public perception.

In: Pulton H. And Taji-Karouki S. (eds.), Muslim Identity and the Balkan State,

London: Hurst & Company, 103–115.

Glass R. 1964. Introduction: aspects of change, in London: Aspects of Change, Center for

Urban Studies, London: MacKibbon and Kee, xiii–xlii.

Hiebert D, Schuurman N, Smith H. 2007. Multiculturalism “on the ground”: The Social

Geography of Immigrant and Visible Minority Populations in Montreal, Toronto,

and Vancouver, Working Paper Series, No. 07.

Jałowiecki B., Szczepański M. 2010. Miasto I przestrzeń w perspektywie socjologicznej,

Wydawnictwo Scholar, Warszawa.

Joppke C. 2007. Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in

Western Europe, West European Politics, Vol. 30:1, 1–22.

Kodra Hysa A, Risteski Lj. 2014. Strategies for Creating the Macedonian State and

Nation and Rival Projects Between 1991 and 2012, in: Kolstø P. (ed.), Strategies

of Symbolic Nation-building in South Eastern Europe, Ashgate Pub Co, 165- 201.

Koppa M. E. 2001. Ethnic Albanians in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia:

Between nationality and citizenship, in: Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 7: 4, 37

– 65.

Lubaś M. 2011. Różnowiercy. Współistnienie międzyreligijne w zachodniomacedońskiej

wsi, Nomos, Kraków.

Mijalkovic M., Urbanek K. 2011. Skopje. The world’s basterd. Architecture of the divided

city, Wieser.

Neofotistos V. 2009. Bulgarian passports, Macedonian Identity, The Invention of EU

Citizenship in the Republic of Macedonia, in: Anthropology Today, vol 25, N4,

–22.

Poulton H. 2000. The muslim experience in the balkan state 1919 – 1991, Nationalitties

papers, 28: 1, 45-66.

Risteski, Lj. 2012. Monuments and urban natinalism, The Skopje 2014 project. The paper

presented on ASN convention in University of Columbia 21 April 2012.

Smith D.P. 2005. ‘Studentification’: the gentrification factory? In: Atkinson, R. and

Bridge, G. (eds.), Gentrification in a global context: the new urban colonialism,

Housing and Society Series. Routledge, UK, 72-89.

Smith N. 2010. The Revolutionary Imperative, Antipode 41, 50–65.

Smith N. 1996. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, New

York: Routledge.

Szalai E. 2005. An Analysis of Its Past and Future, Central European University Press.

Weber M. 1995. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, in: Sukale M. (ed.), Schriften zur Soziologie,

Stuttgart: Reclam, 79–311, first published 1914.

Wicker H-R. 1997. Introduction: Theorizing ethnicity and nationalism, in: Wicker, H-R.

(ed.) Rethinking nationalism and ethnicity: the struggle for meaning and order in

Europe, Oxford: Berg, 1–42.

Van Weesep J. 1994. Gentrification as a research frontier, Progress in Human Geography

, 74 – 83.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.