ЗАМИСЛУВАЊЕТО И СРЕЌАВАЊЕТО НА ДРУГИОТ ВО МАНЧЕСТЕР И БАРСЕЛОНА: НАРАТИВИТЕ НА ПОЛСКИТЕ МИГРАНТКИ

Алина Жепниковска

Abstract


Во контекст на европската миграција по 2004 година полските мигранти се сретнаа со разновидна популација (Vertovec 2007) во поглед на различни етнички заедници, националности, култури, региони, јазици и општествени класи.
Врз основа на наративните интервјуа и фокус‑групите со полските мигрантки јас се занимавам со замислите на учесниците во моето истражување во однос на Другоста врз основа на класата, расата и родот, по нивното пристигнување во Манчестер и Барселона. Ме интересира создавањето на класната англиска другост различна од замислената висока класа и белото британско општество; „затворените“ Каталонци, кои се спротивставуваат на стереотипните претстави за отворените и пријатни Шпанци и странци, и амбивалентните перцепции на црните и ориентални други.
Ја користам постколонијалната критика за декодирање на некои од овие конструкции. Ја нагласувам важноста на контекстот и просторот каде што се развиваат или
се зајакнуваат овие перцепции. Исто така ја истражувам можноста за промена на
перцепциите и појавата на пријателска блискост сфатени како практичен и динамичен процес, кој се појавува во рутинските интеракции помеѓу оние што неодамна пристигнале и староседелците, не секогаш ослободен од тензии. Моето истражување придонесува кон подобро разбирање на секојдневните општествени односи бидејќи подразбира меѓукултурен и родов пристап во истражувањето на блискоста.
Освен тоа, наместо да се постави во фокус односот меѓу мнозинството и малцинството, овде се истражуваат средбите помеѓу мигрантите што пристигнале по 2004 година не само со домашното население туку исто така и со постојните етнички
малцинства и други мигранти со нагласка на припадноста на белата раса и длабоко вкоренетите класни перцепции и перцепциите за Другите засновани врз расата.


Keywords


Барселона, пријателска блискост, средба, Манчестер, полски ми- грантки, расизација, разновидност, белост, црност.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed, Sara. “Declarations of whiteness: the non-performativity of anti-racism”.

Borderlands ejournal 3/2 (2004): 1–16. Посетено на 30 август 2015. http://www.

borderlands.net.au/vol3no2_2004/ahmed_declarations.htm.

Amin, Ash. “Land of strangers”. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 20/1

(2013): 1–8.

Bell, Joyce M., Hartmann, Douglas. “Diversity in Everyday Discourse: The Cultural

Ambiguities and Consequences of “Happy Talk””. American Sociological Review,

, Vol. December: (2007): 895–914.

Bhabha, Homi. “The Other Question: Stereotype, discrimination and the discourse of

colonialism”. The Location of Culture edited by Homi Bhabha, 94–120. London:

Routledge, 1992.

Bonnett, Alastair. White Identities. Historical and International Perspectives. Harlow:

Prentice Hall, 2000.

Bottero, Wendy. “Class in the 21st Century”. Who Cares about the White Working Class

(2009) Посетено на 5 мај 2014. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/projects-andpublications/

employment-3/white-working-class.html.

Bowman, Cynthia. “Street Harassment and the Informal Ghettoization of Women”.

Harvard Law Review 106/3 (1993): 517–580.

Burgueño, J. “El mapa Escondido: las lenguas de España”. Boletín de la A.G.E 34 (2002):

–192.

Byrne, Bridget. White Lives: the interplay of ‘race’, class and gender in everyday life.

London: Routledge, 2006.

Byrne, Bridget. “England – whose England? Narratives of nostalgia, emptiness and

evasion in imaginations of national identity”. The Sociological Review 55/3 (2007):

–530.

Cashmore, Ellis. Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations. London and New York:

Routledge, 1996.

CBOS. “Społeczna percepcja przemocy werbalnej i mowy nienawiści”. (2007).

Посетено на 30 август 2015. http://www.mowanienawisci.info/wp-content/

uploads/2014/04/K_074_07.pdf.

CoDE. “Geographies of diversity in Manchester’, Local Dynamics of Diversity Evidence

from the 2011 Census”. (2013) Посетено на 11 март 2014. http://www.ethnicity.

ac.uk/census/local/CoDE-Manchester-Geographies-Of-Diversity-Census-

Briefing.pdf.

Colectivo IOE. Inmigración y trabajo: trabajadores inmigrantes en el sector de la

construcción: polacos y marroquíes en Madrid y Barcelona. Madrid: IMSERSO,

Denis, Myriam, Matas, Monserrat Pla, M. Entrecruzar culturas: Competencia intercultural

y estrategias didácticas. Brussels: De Boeck & Lacier, 2002.

Departament d’Estadística. “Lectura del Padrón Municipal de Habitantes. Evolución de la

población extranjera de Barcelona 2006–2015”. (2015) Посетено на 9 јуни 2015.

http://www.bcn.cat/estadistica/castella/dades/inf/pobest/pobest15/part1/t13.htm.

Dietz, Gunter. “Frontier hybridisation or culture clash? Transnational migrant communities

and sub-national identity politics in Andalusia, Spain”. Journal of Ethnic and

Migration Studies 30/6 (2004): 1087–1112.

Dietz, Gunter, El-Shohoumi, Nadia. Muslim women in southern Spain: Stepdaughters of

A-Andalus. L Jolla, California: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, 2005.

Drinkwater, Stephen, Eade, John, Garapich Michal. “Poles Apart? EU Enlargement and

the Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants in the UK”. Discussion Papers in

Economics (2006) https://www.surrey.ac.uk/economics/files/apaperspdf/2006_

DP17-06.pdf.

Dziekan, Marek M. “History and culture of Polish Tatars”. Muslims in Poland and Eastern

Europe Widening the European Discourse on Islam, edited by Katarzyna Górak-

Sosnowska, 27–39. Warsaw: University of Warsaw, 2011.

Escandell, Xavier, Ceobanu Alin M. “When contact with immigrants matters: Threat,

interethnic attitudes and foreigner exclusionism in Spain’s Comunidades

Autónomas”. Ethnic and Racial Studies 32 (2009): 44–69.

Flesler, Daniela. The Return of the Moor: Spanish Responses to Contemporary Moroccan

Immigration. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2008.

Fox, Jon E. “The uses of racism: whitewashing new Europeans in the UK” Ethnic and

Racial Studies 36/11 (2012): 1871–1889.

Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Gawlewicz, Anna. “Language and translation strategies in researching migrant experience

of difference from the position of migrant researcher”. Qualitative Research (2014).

doi: 10.1177/1468794114557992.

Gilman, Sander. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.

Gilroy, Paul. After empire: melancholia or convivial culture? London: Routledge, 2004.

Goldberg, David T. Racist Culture. Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Oxford:

Blackwells, 1993.

Grabowska-Lusińska, Izabela, Okólski, Marek. “Migracja z Polski po 1 maja 2004 r.: jej

intensywność i kierunki geograficzne oraz alokacja migrantów na rynkach pracy

krajów Unii Europejskiej”. Centre of Migration Research Working Papers 33/91

(2008): 1–139.

Grabowska-Lusińska, Izabela, Okólski, Marek. Emigracja ostatnia? [Last emigration’?]

Warsaw: Scholar, 2009.

Grzymała‑Kazłowska, Aleksandra. Konstruowanie innego. Wizerunki imigrantow w

Polsce. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 2007.

Grzymała‑Kazłowska, Aleksandra, Okólski, Marek. Influx and Integration of Migrants in

Poland in the Early XXI Century. Prace Migracujne 50 (2003): 1–54.

HESA [Higher Education Statistics Agency]. “Top ten other European Union countries

of domicile in 2013/14 for HE student enrolments by location of HE”. (2015).

Посетено на 12 јуни 2015. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/free-statistics.

Home Office. “Accession Monitoring Report, May 2004 – March 2009. A8 Countries”. A

joint report between UK Border Agency, Department for Work and Pensions (2009)

HM Revenue and Customs and Communities and Local Government.

hooks, bell. Black Looks. Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.

Horolets, Anna, Kozłowska, Olga. “Provincializing Europe, Orientalizing Occident or

Reproducing Power Imbalance? Representations of the UK in Post-2004 Polish

Migrants’ Narratives”. Word and Text: A Journal of Literary Studies and Linguistics

/1 (2012): 48–70.

Imre, Aniko. “Whiteness in post-socialist Eastern Europe: The time of the Gypsies, the end

of race”. Postcolonial Whiteness: A Critical Reader On Race And Empire, edited

by A. J. López, 79–100. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005.

Kempny, Marian, Kapciak, Alina, Łodziński, Sławomir. U progu wielokulturowości. Nowe

oblicza społeczeństwa polskiego. Warszawa: Oficyna Naukowa, 1997.

Kirmani, Nida. “Rusholme”. A Postcolonial People: South Asians in Britain, edited by

Nasreen Ali London: Hurst, 2006.

Leitner, Helga. “Spaces of Encounters: Immigration, Race, Class, and the Politics of

Belonging in Small-Town America”. Annals of the Association of American

Geographers 102/4 (2012): 828–846.

Lorde, Audre. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing

Press, 1984.

Martínez, Maria E., Nirenberg, David, Torres, Hering Max S. Race and Blood in the

Iberian World. Zürich, Switzerland: Lit, 2012.

Miles, Robert. Racism and migrant labour. London: Routledge, 1982.

Miles, Robert, Phizacklea, Annie. White Man’s Country. London: Pluto, 1984.

Mohanty, Chandra T. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial

Discourses”. Feminist Review 30 (1988): 61–88.

Moskalewicz, Marcin. “Murzynek Bambo- czarny, wesoły... ” Próba postkolonialnej

interpretacji tekstu. Teksty Drugie 1/2 (2005): 259–270.

Multilingual Manchester. “Multilingual Manchester: A Fact Sheet”. (2013). Посетено на

јуни 2014. http://mlm.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/pdf/MLMFactsheet.pdf.

Nalborczyk, Agata S. “Islam in Poland. The Past and the Present”. Islamochristiana 32

(2006): 225–238.

Nalewajko, Małgorzata. Nieznani a bliscy. Historyczne i spoleczne uwarunkowania

recepcji polskiej imigracji przelomu XX i XXI wieku w Hiszpanii. Warszawa:

Instytut Historii PAN, 2012.

Nowaczek-Walczak, Magdalena. “The world of kebab”. Muslims in Poland and Eastern

Europe Widening the European Discourse on Islam, edited by Katarzyna

Górak‑Sosnowska, 108–125. Warsaw: University of Warsaw, 2011.

ONS. “Polish People in the UK – Half a million Polish Residents”. 2011a. Посетено

на 8 јуни 2015. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/migration1/migration-statisticsquarterly-

report/august-2011/polish-people-in-the-uk.html.

ONS. “Statistical bulletin: Births in England and Wales by Parents’ Country of Birth”.

(2011b). Посетено на 8 јуни 2015. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/parents-country-of-birth--england-and-wales/2011/sb-parents--country-of-birth--2011.

html.

ONS. “Language in England and Wales”. (2011c). Посетено на 8 јуни 2015. http://

www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/language-in-england-andwales-

/rpt---language-in-england-and-wales--2011.html.

Owczarzak, J. “Introduction: Postcolonial studies and postsocialism in Eastern Europe”.

Focaal 53 (2009): 3–19.

Oxford Dictionaries. “Coloured” (2015). Посетено на 17 јуни 2015. http://www.

oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/coloured.

Parutis, Violetta. “White, European, and Hardowrking: East European Migrants’

Relationships with Other Communities in London”. Journal of Baltic Studies 42:2

(2011): 263–288.

Piróg, Patrycja. “Murzynek Bambo w Afryce mieszka”, czyli jak polska kultura stworzyła

swojego “Murzyna” Opposite 1 (2010). Посетено на 30 август 2015. http://

opposite.uni.wroc.pl/2010/pirog.htm.

Podemski, K. „Doświadczanie świata. Kontakty międzykulturowe Polaków”. Polska

początku XXI wieku: przemiany kulturowe i cywilizacyjne, edited by Krzysztof

Frysztacki and Piotr Sztompka, 197–221. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PAN, 2012.

Pujolar, Joan. “Immigration and language education in Catalonia: Between national and

social agendas”. Linguistics and Education 21 (2010): 229–243.

Reay Diane, Hollingworth Sumi, Williams Katya, Crozier Gill, Jamieson Fiona, James

David, Beedell Phoebe. “`A Darker Shade of Pale?’ Whiteness, the Middle Classes

and Multi-Ethnic Inner City Schooling”. Sociology 41/6 (2007): 1041–1060.

Rodon, Toni, Franco-Guillén, Núria. “Contact with immigrants in times of crisis: An

exploration of the Catalan case”. Ethnicities 14/5 (2014): 650–675.

Roediger, David. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness. New York: Verso, 1994.

Rogaly, Ben, Taylor, Becky. Moving Representations of the ‘Indigenous White Working

Class’ Who Cares about the White Working Class (2009). Посетено на 5 мај 2014.

http://www.runnymedetrust.org/projects-and-publications/employment-3/whiteworking-

class.html.

Said, Edward W. Orientalism. London and New York: Penguin, 1995.

Simonsen, Kirsten. “Practice, Narrative and the ‘Multicultural City’: A Copenhagen

Case”. European Urban and Regional Studies 15/2 (2008): 145–158.

Skeggs, Beverly. Formations and Class and Gender. Becoming Respectable. London:

Sage, 1997.

Solomos, John. Race and Racism in Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Stanek, Mikołaj.“Społeczno-ekonomiczne konsekwencje ‘boomu imigracyjnego’ w

Hiszpanii”. Migracje i społeczeństwa współczesne, edited by Jan Zamojski, 107–

Warszawa: Instytut Historii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 2007.

Średziński, Paweł. “Public opinion research with regards to the integration of the citizens

of African countries in Poland”. Fundacja „Afryka Inaczej”: Warsaw, 2010.

Посетено на 30 август 2015. https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/.

Valentine, Gill. “The Geography of Women’s Fear”. Area 21/4 (1989): 385–390.

Van Dijk, Teun. A. “Discourse and the denial of racism”. Discourse & Society 3/1 (1992):

–118.

Van Dijk, Teun A. “Discourse and racism”. The Blackwell Companion to Racial and Ethnic

Studies edited by D. Goldberg and J. Solomos, 145–159. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

Van Riemsdijk, Micheline. “Variegated privileges of whiteness: lived experiences of

Polish nurses in Norway”. Social & Cultural Geography 11/2 (2010): 117–137.

Vertovec, Steven. “Super-diversity and its implications”. Ethnic and Racial Studies 29/6

(2007): 1024–1054.

Wessendorf, S. “Being open, but sometimes closed’. Conviviality in a super-diverse

London neighbourhood”. European Journal of Cultural Studies (2014): 1–14. doi:

1177/1367549413510415.

White, Anne. “Young people and migration from contemporary Poland”. Journal of Youth

Studies 13/5 (2010): 565–580.

Wise, Amanda, and Velayutham, Selvaraj. “Conviviality in everyday multiculturalism:

Some brief comparisons between Singapore and Sydney” European Journal of

Cultural Studies 17/4 (2014): 406-430.

Władyka, Dawid, Morén-Alegret, Ricard. “Polish Immigration in Bacelona: The Sagrada

Familia Neighbourhood as an arena for interaction”. International Migration 52/1

(2013): 146–164.

Zapata-Barrero, Ricard, van Dijk Teun, eds. Discursos sobre la inmigración en España:

los medios de comunicación, los Parlamentos y las Administraciones. Barcelona:

Ediciones CIDOB, 2007.

Zapata-Barrero, Ricard. “The limits to shaping diversity as public culture: Permanent

festivities in Barcelona”. Cities 37 (2014): 66–72.

Ząbek, Maciej. Biali i Czarni. Postawy Polaków wobec Afryki i Afrykanów [White and

Black. Attitudes of Polish people towards Africa and Africans]. Warszawa: Instytut

Etnologii i Antropologii Kulturowej UW & Wydawnictwo DiG, 2007.

Ząbek, M. „Afrykanie w Polsce. O stosunkach rasowych we współczesnym społeczeństwie

polskim”. Obszary i formy wykluczenia etnicznego w Polsce edited by Aleksandra

Jasińska-Kania and Sławomir Łodziński, 169–180. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo

Naukowe Scholar, 2009.

Yuval-Davis, Nira. Gender and Nation. London-New Delhi: Thousand Oaks, 1997.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.