SUBSISTENCE, ILLICITNESS AND TOBACCO IN A SMALL GREEK TOWN

Main Article Content

Dimitris Yannakopoulos

Abstract

In the rural area of Agrinio, in Western Greece, landscapes, monuments and infrastructures, reveal the deep connection between land, people and the cultivation of tobacco. This connection was disrupted in 2006, when the implementation of national and EU policies resulted in a situation described as “the end of tobacco” (Kamberis 2016: 44-45). Since 2011, many inhabitants, previously engaged in the traditional economic practice of tobacco growing, begun to offer for sale their product once again. However, adapting to the current economic hardships, they cultivate and sell tobacco away from any intervention of the state, avoiding the taxes it imposes and bypassing the middlemen who benefit the most, when selling is legitimate. They establish thus a ‘shadow economy’. Aiming to sell greater amounts and maximize their profit, they activate extended social networks, usually based on kinship or friendship, that often range statewide in memoranda Greece. Research conducted on the field indicates that tobacco producers take advantage of the gaps between legality and illegality that appear as an outcome of the absence of the state as a regulatory agent in a moment of generalized crisis. The result is a livelihood based on the production of new, local perceptions of legality, morality and value.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yannakopoulos, Dimitris. 2019. “SUBSISTENCE, ILLICITNESS AND TOBACCO IN A SMALL GREEK TOWN”. EthnoAnthropoZoom/ЕтноАнтропоЗум 17 (November), 101-39. http://etno.pmf.ukim.mk/index.php/eaz/article/view/436.
Section
Articles / Статии

References

Andreas, P., Greenhill, K. 2010. Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts, the Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Ιthaka – London: Cornell University Press.

Bada, K., Aggeli, M. 2008. „The Women of Tobacco“. The Language of The Mother in History, New Cultural Itirenates, Trono, A., Rizzelo, K. & Ruppi, F. (eds). 399–412. Lecce: Edizioni del Grifo.

Bada, Κ. 2004. „Towards a Cross-Disciplinary Approach of Society and Culture“. Αspects of Anthropological Thought and Research in Greece. 275–289 (на грчки јазик). Athens: Greek Society of Ethnology.

Banister, M. J., Boyce, A. G., Slack, J. 2015. „Illicit Economies and State(less) Geographies: The Politics of Illegality“. Territory, Politics, Governance 3(4): 365–368.

Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Comaroff, J., Comaroff, J. 2006. „Law and Disorder in the Postcolony: An Introduction“. Law and Disorder in the Postcolony, Comaroff J., Comaroff J., (eds.). 1–56. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Damianakos, St. 2003. Tradition, Rebelion and folk culture. Αthens: Plethron.

Damianakos, St., Nitsiakos, V., Zakopoulou, E., Kasimis, Ch. 1997. Power, labor and memory in three villages of Epirus. The local dynamics of survival. Athens: Plethron.

Foucault, M. 1980. „Questions on Geography“. Power/Knowledge, Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977 by Michel Foucault, Gordon C. (ed.). 63–77. New York: Pantheon Books. Giannakopoulos, D. 2018. „’Illiciteness‘ and Survival: The Tobacco-Growers of Agrinio“, on line magazine Ο Κosmos tis Ergasias 5: 35–52 (на грчки јазик).

Goodale, Μ. 2007. „Locating Rights, Envisioning Law Between the Global and the Local“. The Practice of Human Rights: Tracking Law Between the Global and the Local. Goodale, M., Merry, S. E. (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1–38.

Götz, N. 2015. „’Moral economy‘: its conceptual history and analytical prospects“. Journal of Global Ethics 11: 147–162.

Hart, K. 2012. „A Note on Arjun Appadurai’s ’The Spirit of Calculation‘“. Cambridge Journal of Anthropology, 30(1): 18–24.

Herzfeld Michael, 2009, «Essentialism is today more dangerous than ever...», εγχειρίδιον: http://encheiridion.blogspot.gr/2009/01/blog-post_4370.html

Herzfeld, M. 1985. The poetics of manhood: Contest and Identity in a Cretan Mountain Village. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kamberis N., 2016. Standstill and Despare in rural Greece: Farmers’ suicides. Research in the prefecture of Aitoloakarnania 1994–2008. Athens: Academy of Athens (на грчки јазик).

Kasimis, C., Papadopoulos, A. 2013. „Rural Transformations and Family Farming in Contemporary Greece, Agriculture in Mediterranean Europe: Between Old and New Paradigms“. Research in Rural Sociology and Development 19: 263–293.

Kasimis, C., Papadopoulos, A. G. 1994. „The Heterogeneity of Greek Family Farming: Emerging Policy Principles“. Sociologia Ruralis 34: 206–228.

Kingsolver, A. 2011. Tobacco Town Futures: Global Encounters in Rural Kentucky. Long Grove, Ill: Waveland Press, Inc.

Knight, D. 2015. „Opportunism and Diversification: Entrepreneurship and Livelihood Strategies in Uncertain Times“. Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 80(1): 117–144.

Mattei, U., Nader, L. 2008. Plunder: When the Rule of Law is Illegal. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

Monova, M. 2015. „’We don’t have work. We just grow a little tobacco‘: Household economy and Ritual effervescence in a Macedonian town“. Gudeman, S., Hann, C. (eds.). Economy and Ritual. Studies in Postsocialist Transformations. New York/Oxford: Berghahn.

Narotzky, S. 1997. New Directions in Economic Anthropology. London: Pluto Press.

Narotzky, S. 2016. „Between Inequality and Injustice: Dignity as a Motive for Mobilization During the Crisis“. History and Anthropology 27(1): 74–79.

Nitsiakos, V. 2015. Peklari: Small Scale Social Economy. Ioannina: Isnafi (на грчки јазик).

Nordstrom, C. 2007. Global Outlaws: Crime, Money and Power in the Contemporary World. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ong, Α. 2006. Neoliberalism as a mobile technology. Department of Anthropology, Berkeley: University of California.

Pardo, I. 1996. Managing Existence in Naples. Morality, action and structure. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pardo, I. 2004. Between Morality and the Law. London – New York: Routledge.

Petrou, M. 2012. „Rural immigration, family farm modernisation and reactivation of traditional women’s farming tasks in Greece: masculinities and femininities reconsidered“. South European Society and Policy 17(4): 553–571.

Redfield, R. 1956. Peasant Society and Culture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Stavridis Stavros, 1990, The Symbolic Relationship With Space: How social Values Shape and Interpret Space, Athens: Kalvos.

Theodossopoulos, D. 2013. „Infuriated with the Infuriated? Blaming Tactics and Discontent about the Greek Financial Crisis“, Current Anthropology 54(2): 200–221.

Thompson, P. 1971. „The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century“. Past & Present 50: 76–136.